Gerry Otto Neugebauer

Gerry Otto Neugebauer


Date of Birth
September 3, 1932
Date of Death
September 26, 2014

Gerry Neugebauer was born in Göttingen, Germany, the son of famed mathematics and science historian Otto Neugebauer, and moved with his family to Denmark and then Rhode Island in early childhood. He was educated at Cornell University and the California Institute of Technology, where he earned his Ph.D. in physics in 1960. He spent his entire career at Caltech, where he was a professor of physics until his retirement in 1998 and served as director of the Palomar Observatory from 1980 to 1994. Although his doctorate was in particle physics, he quickly turned to astronomy, in particular the new field of infrared observations. This started with his work on infrared detectors when he served in the army, based at Caltech’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, for his first two postdoctoral years. After that he joined the Caltech faculty, where he teamed up with physicist Robert Leighton to build an inexpensive 1.5-m telescope and use it to survey the sky at a wavelength of 2.2 micrometers. The survey found tens of thousands of sources, mostly cool stars, and justifed further work in the infrared. Using conventional telescopes and their own detectors, Neugebauer and his graduate student Eric Becklin discovered a massive star hidden in the Orion Nebula, now known as the “Becklin-Neugebauer object.” it was later identified as a highly obscured newly-forming star. They also discovered infrared radiation from the center of our galaxy and studied this region in detail. While observing planets, stars, nebulae, galaxies, and quasars in the near-infrared from the ground, Neugebauer became co-chairman of the science team of the first orbiting infrared observatory, the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS). This spacecraft operated for ten months in 1983 and detected about 350,000 objects, including ultraluminous infrared galaxies and debris disks orbiting nearby stars. Working with many colleagues, especially B.T. “Tom” Soifer and Keith Matthews, Neugebauer continued to develop and expand infrared, sub-millimeter, and millimeter wavelength observational astronomy for decades. He was among the leaders in building the W.M. Keck Observatory, and he and his colleagues used it to detect stars orbiting the black hole at the center of the Galaxy. He participated in observations made on several missions to the planets and on the Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes and the Infrared Space Observatory. Note: Neugebauer’s first name is pronounced “Gary”. It was originally Gerhard.

Other awards

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Rumford Prize, 1986 (with Robert B. Leighton and Frank J. Low).
American Astronomical Society, Henry Norris Russell Lectureship, 1996.
Royal Astronomical Society, Herschel Medal, 1998.

Biographical materials

Caltech Archives, Introduction to his papers.
Soifer, B. Thomas, Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016.


Martin, Douglas, New York Times, 2 October 2014.
Soifer, B. Thomas, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, 17342-43 (2014).
Svitil, Kathy, Caltech press release, 26 September 2014.
Willner, Steven & Eric E. Becklin, Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 50, 017 (2018)

Academic genealogy



AIP Center for History of Physics (several)

Named after him

Minor Planet #3484 Neugebauer (with his father Otto and wife Marcia).


Papers, etc.

Neugebauer’s papers and a 1991 oral history interview by Timothy Moy are at the Caltech Archives. The archives also contain a lengthy oral history interview with James A. Westphal which discusses Neugebauer.

Other References: Historical

Low, Frank J., G.H. Rieke, & R.D. Gehrz, “The Beginning of Modern Infrared Astronomy—1960 to 1983,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 45, 43-75 (2007).

Meredith, Dennis, “Palomar's Future: Too Bright?” [Interview with Gerry Neugebauer regarding Palomar Observatory and light pollution], Engineering & Science 46(1), 18-21 (1982).

Steiger, Walter R., A Brief History of the Caltech Submillilmeter Observatory

Search ADS for works about Neugebauer

Other References: Scientific

Trilling, G.H. & G. Neugebauer, “Cloud-Chamber Study of Negative Strange Particles,” Phys. Rev. 104, 1688-94 (1956).

Bonsack, W.K., et al, “The Interpretation of Photoelectric Colors for Stars of Types B-F,” Ap.J. 125, 139-52 (1957).

Neugebauer, G., W.D. Wales, & R.L. Walker, “π-+ Ratio from Deuterium in Photoproduction at 500-1000 Mev,” Phys. Rev. Letters 2, 429-30 (1959).

Neugebauer, Gerry, The Ratio of Negative to Positive Pion Photoproduction from Deuterium by Photons with Energies between 500 and 1000 MeV (Doctoral Dissertation, Caltech, 1960).

Chase, S.C., L.D. Kaplan, & G. Neugebauer, “The Mariner 2 Infrared Radiometer Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 68, 6157-69 (1963).

Münch, G. & G. Neugebauer, “On the Interpretation of Strong CO2 Absorption Bands in the Spectrum of Mars,” Lowell Observatory Bulletin 6, 181-83 (1965).

Neugebauer, G., D.E. Martz, & R.B. Leighton, “Observations of Extremely Cool Stars,” Ap.J. 142, 399-401 (1965).

Ulrich, B.T., G. Neugebauer, D. McCammon, R.B. Leighton, E.E. Hughes, & E. Becklin, “Further Observations of Extremely Cool Stars,” Ap.J. 146, 288-90 (1966) [erratum].

McCammon, D., G. Münch, & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared Spectra of Low-Temperature Stars,” Ap.J. 147, 575-86 (1967).

Becklin, E.E. & G. Neugebauer, “Observations of an Infrared Star in the Orion Nebula,” Ap.J. 147, 799-802 (1967) [discovery of the now-famous Becklin-Neugebauer Object].

Münch, G., G. Neugebauer, & D. McCammon, “Infrared Coronal Lines. II. Observation of [Si x] λ1.43μ and [Mg VIII] λ3.03μ,” Ap.J. 149, 681-86 (1967).

Oke, J.B., W.L.W. Sargent, G. Neugebauer, & E.E. Becklin, “A Variable Radio-Quiet Compact Galaxy I ZW 1727+50,” Ap.J. 150, L173-L176 (1967).

Becklin, E.E. & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared Observations of the Galactic Center,” Ap.J. 151, 145-61 (1968) [reprinted with commentary in Kenneth R. Lang & Owen Gingerich, eds., A Source Book in Astronomy & Astrophysics, 1900-1975 (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1979), pp. 67-74].

Neugebauer, G. & J.A. Westphal, “Infrared Observations of Eta Carinae,” Ap.J. 152, L89-L94 (1967).

Neugebauer, G. & Robert B. Leighton, Two-micron Sky Survey; A Preliminary Catalog (NASA SP 3047, 1969) [now available online].

Neugebauer, G., J.B. Oke, E. Becklin, & G. Garmire, “A Study of Visual and Infrared Observations of SCO XR-1,” Ap.J. 155,1-9 (1969).

Oke, J.B., G. Neugebauer, & E.E. Becklin, “Spectrophotometry and Infrared Photometry of BL Lacertae,” Ap.J. 156, L41-L43 (1969).

Neugebauer, G., E.E. Becklin, J. Kristian, R.B. Leighton, G. Snellen, & J.A. Westphal, “Infrared and Optical Measurements of the Crab Pulsar NP 0532,” Ap.J. 156, L115-L119 (1969).

Sandage, A.R., E.E. Becklin, & G. Neugebauer, “UBVRIHKL Photometry of the Central Region of M31,” Ap.J. 157, 55-68 (1969).

Becklin, E.E. & G. Neugebauer, “1.65–19.5-micron Observations of the Galactic Center,” Ap.J. 157, L31-L36 (1969).

Hyland, A.R., E.E. Becklin, G. Neugebauer, & George Wallerstein, “Observations of the Infrared Object, VY Canis Majoris,” Ap.J. 158, 619-28 (1969) [erratum].

Becklin, E.E., J.A. Frogel, A.R. Hyland, J. Kristian, & G. Neugebauer, “The Unusual Infrared Object IRC+10216,” Ap.J. 158, L133-L137 (1969).

Oke, J.B., G. Neugebauer, & E.E. Becklin, “Absolute Spectral Energy Distribution of Quasi-Stellar Objects from 0.3 to 2.2 Microns,” Ap.J. 159, 341-55 (1970).

Chase Jr., S., E. Miner, G. Münch, & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared Radiometry Experiment for Mariner Mars 1971,” Icarus 12, 46-47 (1970).

Hyland, A.R. & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared Observations of Nova Serpentis 1970,” Ap.J. 160, L177-L180 (1970).

Greenstein, Jesse L., G. Neugebauer, & E.E. Becklin, “The Faint End of the Main Sequence,” Ap.J. 161, 519-31 (1970).

Neugebauer, Gerry, Eric Becklin, & A.R. Hyland, “Infrared Sources of Radiation,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 9, 67-102 (1971).

Spinrad, Hyron, et al, “Maffei 1: A New Massive Member of the Local Group?” Ap.J. 163, L25-L31 (1971).

Neugebauer, G., G. Münch, H. Kieffer, S.C. Chase, & E. Miner, Jr., “Mariner 1969 Infrared Radiometer Results: Temperatures and Thermal Properties of the Martian Surface,” Astronomical Journal 76, 719-27 (1971) .

Wynn-Williams, C.G., E.E. Becklin, & G. Neugebauer, “Infra-red Sources in the H II Region W3,” MNRAS 160, 1-14 (1972).

Hyland, A.R., E.E. Becklin, J.A. Frogel, & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared Observations of 1612 MHz IR/OH Sources,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 16, 204-19 (1972).

Chase Jr., S.C., H. Hatzenbeler, H.H. Kieffer, E. Miner, G. Münch, & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared Radiometry Experiment on Mariner 9,” Science 175, 308-09 (1972).

Kieffer, Hugh H., G. Neugebauer, G. Munch, S.C. Chase, Jr., & E. Miner, “Infrared Thermal Mapping Experiment: The Viking Mars Orbiter,” Icarus 16, 47-56 (1972).

Wilson, W.J., P.R. Schwartz, G. Neugebauer, P.M. Harvey, & E.E. Becklin, “Infrared Stars with Strong 1665/1667-MHz OH Microwave Emission,” Ap.J. 177, 523-40 (1972).

Becklin, E.E., J. Kristian, G. Neugebauer, & C.G. Wynn-Williams, “Infrared Counterpart,” Nature Physical Science 239, 130 (1972).

Epstein, E.E., et al, “3C 120, BL Lacertae, and OJ 287: Coordinated Optical, Infrared, and Radio Observations of Intraday Variability,” Ap.J. 178, L51-L59 (1972).

Gehrz, R.D., E.P. Ney, E.E. Becklin, & G. Neugebauer, “The Infrared Spectrum and Angular Size of Eta Carinae,” Astrophysical Letters 13, 89 (1973).

Kirshner, R.P., S.P. Willner, E.E. Becklin, G. Neugebauer, & J.B. Oke, “Spectrophotometry of the Supernova in NGC 5253 from 0.33 to 2.2 Microns,” Ap.J. 180, L97-L100 (1973).

Becklin, E.E., E.B. Fomalont, & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared and Radio Observations of the Nucleus of NGC 253,” Ap.J. 181, L27-L31 (1973).

Becklin, E.E., G. Neugebauer, & C.G. Wynn-Williams, “On the Nature of the Infrared Point Source in the Orion Nebula,” Ap.J. 182, L7-L9 (1973).

Becklin, E.E., G. Neugebauer, & C.G. Wynn-Williams, “The Spatial Distribution of the Infrared Emission from NGC 7027,” Astrophysical Letters 15, 87 (1973).

Becklin, E.E. & G. Neugebauer, F.J. Hawkins, K.O. Mason, P.W. Sanford, K. Matthews, & C.G. Wynn-Williams, “Infrared and X-ray Variability of Cyg X-3,” Nature 245, 302-04 (1973).

Becklin, E.E., K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, & C.G. Wynn-Williams,“The Size of NGC 1068 at 10 Microns,” Ap.J. 186, L69-L72 (1973).

Chase, S.C., R.D. Ruiz, G. Münch, G. Neugebauer, M. Schroeder, & L.M. Trafton, “Pioneer 10 Infrared Radiometer Experiment: Preliminary Results,” Science 183, 315-17 (1974).

Chase, S.C., E.D. Miner, D. Morrison, G. Münch, & G. Neugebauer, “Preliminary Infrared Radiometry of Venus from Mariner 10,” Science 183, 1291-92 (1974).

Wynn-Williams, C.G., E.E. Becklin, & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared studies of H II regions and OH sources,” Ap.J. 187, 473-85 (1974).

Chase, S.C., E.D. Miner, D. Morrison, G. Münch, G. Neugebauer, & M. Schoeder, “Preliminary Infrared Radiometry of the Night Side of Mercury from Mariner 10,” Science 185, 142-45 (1974).

Gatley, I., E.E. Becklin, K. Mattews, G. Neugebauer, M.V. Penston, & N. Scoville, “A New Infrared Complex and Molecular Cloud in Orion,” Ap.J. 191, L121-L125 (1974).

Zappala, R.R., E.E. Becklin, K. Matthews, & G. Neugebauer, “Angular Diameter of IRC +10011 at 2.2, 10, and 20 microns,” Ap.J. 192, 109-12 (1974).

Penston, M.V., M.J. Penston, R.A. Selmes, E.E. Becklin, & G. Neugebauer, “Broadband Optical and Infrared Observations of Seyfert Galaxies,” MNRAS 169, 357-93 (1974).

Ingersoll, A.P., et al, “Pioneer 11 Infrared Radiometer Experiment: The Global Heat Balance of Jupiter,” Science 188, 472-73 (1975).

Ney, E.P., K.M. Merrill, E.E. Becklin, G. Neugebauer, & C.G. Wynn-Williams, “Studies of the Infrared Source CRL 2688,” Ap.J. 198, L129-L134 (1975).

Becklin, E.E. & G. Neugebauer, “High Resolution Maps Of The Galactic Center at 2. 2 and 10 Microns,” Ap.J. 200, L71-L74 (1974).

Westbrook, W.E., S.P. Willner, K.M. Merrill, M. Schmidt, E.E. Becklin, G. Neugebauer, & C.G. Wynn-Williams, “Observations of an Isolated Compact Infrared Source in Perseus,” Ap.J. 202, 407-09, 411-14 (1975).

Neugebauer, G., E.E. Becklin, J.B. Oke, & L. Searle, “Optical and Infrared Spectrophotometry of 18 Markarian Galaxies,” Ap.J. 205, 29-43 (1976).

Mason, K.O., et al, “Further Joint X-ray, Infrared, and Radio Observations of Cygnus X-3,” Ap.J. 207, 78-87 (1976).

Becklin, E.E., G. Neugebauer, S. Beckwith, I. Gatley, K. Matthews, K., C. Sarazin, & M.W. Werner, “Infrared Studies of an Ionization Front Region in the Orion Nebula,” Ap.J. 207, 770-79 (1976).

Chase Jr., S.C., E.D. Miner, D. Morrison, G. Münch, G. Neugebauer, “Mariner 10 Infrared Radiometer Results — Temperatures and Thermal Properties of the Surface of Mercury,” Icarus 28, 565-78 (1976).

Kieffer, Hugh H., Stillman C. Chase, Jr., Elis D. Miner, Frank Don Palluconi, Guido Münch, Gerry Neugebauer, & Terry Z. Martin,“Infrared Thermal Mapping of the Martian Surface and Atmosphere: First Results,” Science 193, 780-86 (1976).

Beckwith, S., N.J. Evans, II, E.E. Becklin, & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared Observations of Monoceros R2,” Ap.J. 208, 390-95 (1976).

Campbell, M.P., et al, “Far-infrared Observations of IRC +10216,” Ap.J. 208, 396-98 (1976).

Westbrook, W.E., D.Y. Gezari, M.G. Hauser, M.W. Werner, J.H. Elias, G. Neugebauer, & K.Y. Lo, “One-millimeter Continuum Emission Studies of Four Molecular Clouds,” Ap.J. 209, 94-101 (1976).

Wynn-Williams, C.G., J.R. Forster, W.J. Welch, M.C.H. Wright, K. Matthews, E.E. Becklin, & G. Neugebauer, “On the Relationship between the Infrared Source CRL 2591 (UOA-27) and Its Radio and H2O Counterparts,” Ap.J. 211, L89-L90 (1977.

Wynn-Williams, C.G., K. Matthews, M.W. Werner, E.E. Becklin, & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared studies of H II regions and Dust Clouds near K3-50,” MNRAS 179, 255-64 (1977.

Ennis, D., et al, “Infrared Observations of Nova Cygni 1975,” Ap.J. 214, 478-87 (1977).

Werner, M.W., E.E. Becklin, & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared Studies of Star Formation,” Science 197, 723-32 (1977).

Phillips, T.G., P.J. Huggins, G. Neugebauer, & M.W. Werner,“Detection of Submillimeter (870 μm) CO Emission from the Orion Molecular Cloud,” Ap.J. 217, L161-L164 (1977).

Becklin, E.E., K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, & S.P. Willner, “Infrared Observations of the Galactic Center. I. Nature of the Compact Sources,” Ap.J. 219, 121-28 (1978).

Tolson, R.H., et al, “Viking First Encounter of Phobos: Preliminary Results,” Science 199, 61-64 (1978).

Elias, J.H., et al, “1 Millimeter Continuum Observations of Extragalactic Objects,” Ap.J. 220, 25-41 (1978).

Neugebauer, G., E.E. Becklin, K. Matthews, & C.G. Wynn-Williams, “Infrared Observations of the Galactic Center. III. 2.2 Micron Spectroscopy,” Ap.J. 220, 149-55 (1978).

Becklin, E.E., G. Neugebauer, S.P. Willner, & K. Matthews, “Infrared Observations of the Galactic Center. IV. The interstellar extinction,” Ap.J. 220, 831-35 (1978).

Hyland, A.R., E.E. Becklin, & G. Neugebauer, “The Lα/Hα Intensity Ratio in PKS 0237–23,” Ap.J. 220, L73-L75 (1978).

Wynn-Williams, C.G., E.E. Becklin, K. Matthews, & G. Neugebauer, “Two-micron Line Emission from the H II Region G 333.6–0.2,” MNRAS 183, 237-44 (1978.

Beckwith, S., I. Gatley, K. Matthews, & G. Neugebauer, “Molecular Hydrogen Emission from T Tauri Stars,” Ap.J. 223, L41-L43 (1978).

Werner, M.W., G. Neugebauer, J.R. Houck, & G. Hauser, “One-millimeter Brightness Temperatures of the Planets,” Icarus 35, 289-96 (1978).

Nicholson, P.D., S.E. Persson, K. Matthews, P. Goldreich, & G. Neugebauer, “The Rings of Uranus: Results of the 10 April 1978 Occultation,” Astronomical Journal 83, 1240-48 (1978).

Beckwith, S., & S.E. Persson, & G. Neugebauer, “Measurements of the extinction to the molecular hydrogen emission from the Orion Nebula,” Ap.J. 227, 436-40 (1979).

Soifer, B.T., G. Neugebauer, & K. Matthews, “Infrared Observations of the X-ray Quasars 0241+622 and MR2251-178,” Nature 278, 231-32 (1979).

Neugebauer, G., J.B. Oke, E.E. Becklin, & K. Matthews, “Absolute Spectral Energy Distribution of Quasi-stellar Objects from 0.3 to 10 Microns,” Ap.J. 230, 79-94 (1979).

Werner, M.W.; E.E. Becklin, I. Gatley, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, & C.G. Wynn-Williams, “ An Infrared Study of the NGC 7538 Region,” MNRAS 188, 463-79 (1979).

Wynn-Williams, C.G., E.E. Becklin, K. Matthews, & G. Neugebauer, “Two-micron Spectrophotometry of the Galaxy NGC 253,” MNRAS 189, 163-69 (1979.

Ingersoll, A.P.; G.S. Orton, G. Münch, G. Neugebauer, & S.C. Chase, “Pioneer Saturn Infrared Radiometer: Preliminary Results,” Science 207, 439-43 (1980).

Becklin, E.E., I. Gatley, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, K. Sellgren, M.W. Werner, & C.G. Wynn-Williams, “Infrared Emission and Star Formation in the Central Regions of the Galaxy IC 342,” Ap.J. 236, 441-47 (1980).

Neugebauer, G., et al, “Recombination Spectrum and Reddening in NGC 1068,” Ap.J. 238, 502-09 (1980).

Werner, M.W., et al, “High Angular Resolution Far-infrared Observations of the W3 Region,” Ap.J. 242, 601-08 (1980).

Soifer, B.T., G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E.E. Becklin, C.G. Wynn-Williams, & R. Capps, “IR Observations of the Double Quasar 0957 +561 A, B and the Intervening Galaxy,” Nature 285, 91-93 (1980).

Neugebauer, G., et al, “Recombination Spectrum and Reddening in NGC 1068,” Ap.J. 238, 502-09 (1980).

Beckwith, S., G. Neugebauer, E.E. Becklin, K. Matthews, & S.E. Persson, “Molecular Hydrogen Emission in NGC 7027,” Astronomical Journal 85, 886-90 (1980).

Gehrz, R.D., J.A. Hackwell, G.I. Grasdalen, E.P. Ney, G. Neugebauer, & K. Sellgren, “The Optically Thin Dust Shell of Nova Cygni 1978,” Ap.J. 239, 570-80 (1980).

Werner, M.W., et al, “High Angular Resolution Far-infrared Observations of the W3 Region, ” Ap.J. 242, 601-08 (1980).

Orton, G.S., A.P. Ingersoll, L. Froidevaux, G. Neugebauer, G. Münch, & S.C. Chase, “Scientific Results from the Pioneer Saturn Infrared Radiometer,” Advances in Space Research 1, 179-82 (1981).

Soifer, B.T., G. Neugebauer, J.B. Oke, & K. Matthews, “Infrared and Optical Observations of the Hydrogen Lines in quasars,” Ap.J. 243, 369-80 (1981).

Soifer, B.T., G. Neugebauer, & K. Matthews, “Near-infrared Spectrophotometry of the Satellites and Rings of Uranus,” Icarus 45, 612-17(1981).

Phillips, T.G., G.R. Knapp, P.G. Wannier, P.J. Huggins, M.W. Werner, G. Neugebauer, & D. Ennis, “Temperatures of Galactic Molecular Clouds Showing CO Self-absorption,“ Ap.J. 245, 512-28 (1981).

Blitz, L., F.P. Israel, G. Neugebauer, I. Gatley, T.J. Lee, & D.H. Beattie, “The Largest H II Regions in M101,” Ap.J. 249, 76-82 (1981).

Nadeau, D., G. Neugebauer, & T.R. Geballe, “The Motion and Distribution of the Vibrationally Excited H2 in the Orion Molecular Cloud,” Ap.J. 253, 154-66 (1982).

Lacy, J.H., et al, “Infrared, Optical, and Ultraviolet Observations of Hydrogen Line Emission from Seyfert galaxies,” Ap.J. 256, 75-82 (1982).

Elias, J.H., J.A. Frogel, K. Matthews, & G. Neugebauer, “Infrared Standard Stars,” Astronomical Journal 87, 1029-34 (1982) [Erratum].

Ennis, D.J., G. Neugebauer, & M. Werner, “1 Millimeter Continuum Observations of Quasars,” Ap.J. 262, 460-77 (1982).

Lunine, Jonathan I., Gerry Neugebauer, & Bruce M. Jakosvy, “Infrared observations of Phobos and Deimos from Viking,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 10297-305 (1982).

Soifer, B.T., G. Neugebauer, C.A. Beichman, J.R. Houck, & M. Rowan-Robinson, “Preliminary Scientific Results from the First Six Months of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS),” in Infrared Technology IX; Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 23-25, 1983 (International Society for Optical Engineering, Bellingham, WA, 1983), pp. 297-301.

Landau, R., T.W. Jones, E.E. Epstein, G. Neugebauer, B.T. Soifer, M.W. Werner, M. W., J.J. Puschell, & T.J. Balonek, “Extragalactic 1 Millimeter Sources: Simultaneous Observations at Centimeter, Millimeter, and Visual Wavelengths,” Ap.J. 268, 68-75 (1983).

Glassgold, A.E., et al, “Multifrequency Observations of the Flaring Quasar 1156+295,” Ap.J. 274, 101-12 (1983).

Neugebauer, G., et al, “The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Mission,” Ap.J. 278, L1-L6 (1984).

Rowan-Robinson, M., et al, “The IRAS Minisurvey,” Ap.J. 278, L7-L10 (1984).

Hauser, M.G., et al, “IRAS Observations of the Diffuse Infrared Background,” Ap.J. 278, L15-L18 (1984).

Low, F.J., et al, “Infrared Cirrus: New Components of the Extended Infrared Emission,” Ap.J. 278, L19-L22 (1984).

Aumann, H.H., et al, “Discovery of a Shell Around Alpha Lyrae,” Ap.J. 278, L23-L27 (1984).

Beichman, C.A., et al, “The Formation of Solar Type Stars: IRAS Observations of the Dark Cloud Barnard 5,” Ap.J. 278, L45-L48 (1984).

Houck, J.R., et al, “Unidentified Point Sources in the IRAS Minisurvey,” Ap.J. 278, L63-L66 (1984).

Soifer, B.T., et al, “Infrared Galaxies in the IRAS Minisurvey,” Ap.J. 278, L71-L74 (1984).

Miley, G., G. Neugebauer, B.T. Soifer, P.E. Clegg, S. Harris, S., M. Rowan-Robinson, & E. Young, “A 25 Micron Component in 3C 390.3,” Ap.J. 278, L79-L81 (1984).

Low, F.J., et al, “Cryogenic Telescope on the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS),” Optical Engineering 23, 122-27 (1984).

Neugebauer, G., et al, “Early results from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite,” Science 224, 14-21 (1984).

Soifer, B.T., et al, “The Remarkable Infrared Galaxy Arp 220 = IC 4553,” Ap.J. 283, L1-L4 (1984).

Scoville, N.Z., et al, “The Inner Disk of NGC 253,” Ap.J. 289, 129-40 (1985).

Houck, J.R., et al, “Unidentified IRAS Sources: Ultrahigh-luminosity Galaxies,” Ap.J. 290, L5-L8 (1985).

Miley, G.K., G. Neugebauer, & B.T. Soifer, “IRAS Observations of Seyfert Galaxies,” Ap.J. 293, L11-L14 (1985).

Madore, B.F., C.W. McAlary, R.A. McLaren, D.L. Welch, G. Neugebauer, & K. Matthews, “Near-infrared Observations of Cepheids: The Distance to M33,” Ap.J. 294, 560-566 (1985).

Hacking, P., et al, “The Brightest High-latitude 12-micron IRAS Sources,” PASP 97, 616-33 (1985).

Neugebauer, G., B.T. Soifer, & G.K. Miley, “A New Luminosity Component in 3C 48,” Ap.J. 295, L27-L31 (1985).

Elias, J.H., K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, & S.E. Persson, “Type I Supernovae in the Infrared and Their Use as Distance Indicators,” Ap.J. 296, 379-89 (1985).

Bregman, Joel N., et al, “Multifrequency Observations of the Superluminal Quasar 3C 345,” Ap.J. 301, 708-26 (1986).

Soifer, B.T., et al, “The Luminosity Function and Space Density of the Most Luminous Galaxies in the IRAS Survey,” Ap.J. 303, L41-L44 (1986).

Olnon, F.M, et al, “IRAS Catalogues and Atlases: Atlas of Low-resolution Spectra,” Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement Series 65, 607-1065 (1986).

Landau, Robert, et al, “Active Extragalactic Sources - Nearly Simultaneous Observations from 20 Centimeters to 1400 Å,” Ap.J. 308, 78-92 (1986).

Neugebauer, G., G.K. Miley, Soifer, B.T., & P.E. Clegg, “Quasars measured by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite,” Ap.J. 308, 815-28 (1986).

Beichman, C.A., B.T. Soifer, G. Helou, T.J. Chester, G. Neugebauer, F.C. Gillett, & F.J. Low, “Discovery of an Infrared-loud Quasar,” Ap.J. 308, L1-L5 (1986).

Elvis, Martin, et al, “X-ray Spectra of PG quasars. I. The Continuum from X-rays to Infrared,” Ap.J. 310, 291-316 (1986).

Gillett, F.C., D.E. Backman, C. Beichman, & G. Neugebauer, “IRAS Observations of R Coronae Borealis: Detection and Study of a Fossil Shell,” Ap.J. 310, 842-52 (1986).

Soifer, B.T., G. Neugebauer, & J.R. Houck, “The IRAS View of the Extragalactic Sky,” Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 25, 187-230 (1987).

Neugebauer, G., R.F. Green, K. Matthews, M. Schmidt, B.T. Soifer, & J. Bennett, “Continuum Energy Distributions of Quasars in the Palomar-Green Survey,” Ap.J. Supp. 63, 615-44 (1987).

Soifer, B.T., et al, “The IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample. II. The Sample and Luminosity Function,” Ap.J. 320, 238-57 (1987).

Beichman, C.A., G. Neugebauer, H.J. Habing, P.E. Clegg, Thomas J. Chester, eds., Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) Catalogs and Atlases, vol. 1, Explanatory Supplement. NASA RP-1190 (Govt. Printing Off., Washington, DC, 1988).

Golombek, D., G.K. Miley, & G. Neugebauer, “IRAS Observations of Radio Galaxies,” Astronomical Journal 95, 26-36 (1988).

Impey, C.D. & G. Neugebauer, “Energy Distributions of Blazars,” Astronomical Journal 95, 307-51 (1988).

Carico, David P., D.B. Sanders, B.T. Soifer, J.H. Elias, K. Matthews, & G. Neugebauer, “The IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample. III. 1-10 μmeter Observations and Coadded IRAS Data for Galaxies with LIR ≥ 1011 L,” Astronomical Journal 95, 356-73 (1988).

Sanders, D.B., B.T. Soifer, J.H. Elias, B.F. Madore, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, & N.Z. Scoville, “Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies and the Origin of Quasars,” Ap.J. 325, 74-91 (1988).

Sanders, D.B., B.T. Soifer, J.H. Elias, G. Neugebauer, & K. Matthews, “Warm Ultraluminous Galaxies in the IRAS Survey: The Transition from Galaxy to Quasar?” Ap.J. 328, L35-L39 (1988).

Gillett, F.G., T. de Jong, G. Neugebauer, W.L. Rice, & J.P. Emerson, “IRAS Observations of the Globular Cluster 47 Tucanae,” Astronomical Journal 96, 116-22 (1988).

Rice, W., Carol J. Lonsdale, B.T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, E.L. Kopan, Lawrence A. Lloyd, T. de Jong, & H.J. Habing, “A Catalog of IRAS Observations of Large Optical Galaxies, ” Ap.J. Supp. 68, 91-127 (1988).

Gillett, F.C., G.H. Jacoby, R.R. Joyce, J.G. Cohen, G. Neugebauer, B.T. Soifer, T. Nakajima, & K. Matthews, “The Optical/infrared Counterpart(s) of IRAS 18333-2357,” Ap.J. 338, 862-74 (1989).

Neugebauer, G., B.T. Soifer, K. Matthews, & J.H. Elias, “The Near-infrared Variability of a Sample of Optically Selected Quasars,” Astronomical Journal 97, 957-77 (1989).

Nakajima, T., et al, “Diffraction-limited Imaging. II - Optical Aperture-synthesis Imaging of Two Binary Stars,” Astronomical Journal 97, 1510-21 (1989).

Soifer, B.T., L. Boehmer, G. Neugebauer, & D.B. Sanders, “The IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample. IV. Complete IRAS Observations,” Astronomical Journal 98, 766-97 (1989).

Sanders, D.B., E.S. Phinney, G. Neugebauer, B.T. Soifer, & K. Matthews, K., “Continuum Energy Distribution of Quasars: Shapes and Origins,” Ap.J. 347, 29-51 (1989) [erratum].

Carico, David P., James R. Graham, K. Matthews, T.D. Wilson, B.T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, & D.B. Sanders, “The Near-infrared Morphology of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies,” Ap.J. 349, L39-L42 (1990).

Bregman, Joel N., et al, “Multifrequency Observations of BL Lacertae,” Ap.J. 352, 574-86 (1990).

Graham, James R., D.P. Carico, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, B.T. Soifer, & T.D. Wilson, “The Double Nucleus of Arp 220 Unveiled,” Ap.J. 354, L5-L8 (1990).

Carico, David P., D.B. Sanders, B.T. Soifer, K. Matthews, & G. Neugebauer, “The IRAS Bright Galaxy Sample. V. Multibeam Photometry of Galaxies with LIR ≥ 1011 L,” Astronomical Journal 100, 70-83 (1990).

Graham, James R., K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, & B.T. Soifer, “ The Infrared Excess of G29-38: A Brown Dwarf or Dust?” Ap.J. 357, 216-23 (1990).

Soifer, B.T. & G. Neugebauer, “The Properties of Infrared Galaxies in the Local Universe,” Astronomical Journal 101, 354-61 (1991).

Bothun, Greg, J.H. Elias, G. MacAlpine, K. Matthews, J.R. Mould, G. Neugebauer, & I.N. Reid, “Carbon Stars at High Galactic Latitude,” Astronomical Journal 101, 2220-28 (1991).

Reid, I.N., et al, “The Second Palomar Sky Survey,” PASP 103, 661-74 (1991).

Ghez, A.M., et al, “Diffraction Limited Infrared Images of the Binary Star T Tauri,” Astronomical Journal 102, 2066-72 (1991).

Koresko, Chris D., Steven V.W. Beckwith, Andrea M. Ghez, Keith Matthews, & Gerry Neugebauer, “An Infrared Companion to Ζ Canis Majoris,” Astronomical Journal 102, 2073-78, 2127, 2128 (1991).

Haniff, C.A., A.M. Ghez, P.W. Gorham, S.R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, & G. Neugebauer, “Optical Aperture Synthetic Images of the Photosphere and Molecular Atmosphere of Mira,” Astronomical Journal 103, 1662-67, 1719 (1992).

Soifer, B.T., G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, C. Lawrence, & J. Mazzarella, “High spatial resolution continuum and H-α imaging of the high-redshift IRAS source FSC 10214+4724,” Ap.J. 399, L55-L58 (1992).

Graham, James R., E. Serabyn, T.M. Herbst, K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, B.T. Soifer, T.D. Wilson, & S. Beckwith, “A Spatially Resolved Photodissociation Region in the Planetary Nebula NGC 7027,” Astronomical Journal 105, 250-257 (1993).

Ghez, A.M., G. Neugebauer, & K. Matthews, “The Multiplicity of T Tauri Stars in the Star Forming Regions Taurus-Auriga and Ophiuchus-Scorpius: A 2.2 Micron Speckle Imaging Survey,“ Astronomical Journal 106, 2005-23 (1993).

Soifer, B.T., et al, “Deep Imaging of the Field of the z = 4.9 Quasar PC 1247+3406, and Faint Galaxy Counts in the K Band with the Keck Telescope,” Ap.J. 420, L1-L4 (1994).

Graham, James R., et al, “Infrared Observations of the z = 3.8 Radio Galaxy, 4C 41.17, with the W. M. Keck Telescope,” Ap.J. 420, L5-L8 (1994).

Matthews, K., et al, “Near-infrared Imaging of FSC 10214+4724 with the W. M. Keck Telescope,” Ap.J. 420, L13-L16 (1994).

Nicholson, P.D., et al, “Palomar Observations of the R Impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9: I. Light Curves,” Geophys. Res. Let. 22, 1613-16 (1995).

Nicholson, P.D., et al, “Palomar Observations of the R Impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9: II. Spectra,” Geophys. Res. Let. 22, 1617-20 (1995).

Djorgovski, S., et al, “Deep Galaxy Counts in the K Band with the Keck Telescope,” Ap.J. 438, L13-L16 (1995).

Simon, M., et al, “A Lunar Occultation and Direct Imaging Survey of Multiplicity in the Ophiuchus and Taurus Star-forming Regions,” Ap.J. 443, 625-37 (1995).

van Kerkwijk, M.H., S.R. Kulkarni, K. Matthews, & G. Neugebauer, “A Luminous Companion to SGR 1806-20,” Ap.J. 444, L33-L35 (1995).

Gregorich, D.T., G. Neugebauer, B.T. Soifer, J.E. Gunn, & T.L. Herter, “Study of Deep IRAS Fields at 60 μm,” Astronomical Journal 106, 259-67 (1995).

Myers, S.T., et al, “1608+656: A Quadruple-Lens System Found in the CLASS Gravitational Lens Survey,” Ap.J. 447, L5-L8 (1995).

Ghez, A.M., A.J. Weinberger, G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, & D. W. McCarthy, Jr., “Speckle Imaging Measurements of the Relative Tangential Velocities of the Components of T Tauri Binary Stars,” Astronomical Journal 110, 753-65 (1995).

Murphy, T.W., Jr., et al, “Visual and Near-Infrared Imaging of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies: The IRAS 2 Jy Sample,” Astronomical Journal 111, 1025-52 (1995).

Fassnacht, C.D., et al, “1608+656: A Gravitationally Lensed Poststarburst Radio Galaxy,” Ap.J. 460, L103-L106 (1996).

Eisenhardt, Peter R., Lee Armus, David W. Hogg, B.T. Soifer, G. Neugebauer, & Michael W. Werner, “Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Luminous IRAS Source FSC 10214+4724: A Gravitationally Lensed Infrared Quasar,” Ap.J. 461,72-83 (1996).

Matthews, K., A.M. Ghez, A.J. Weinberger, & G. Neugebauer, “The First Diffraction-Limited Images from the W. M. Keck Telescope,” PASP 108, 615-19 (1996).

Hogg, David W., G. Neugebauer, Lee Armus, K. Matthews, Michae A. Pahre, B.T. Soifer, & A.J. Weinberger, “Near Infrared Imaging of the Hubble Deep Field with the Keck Telescope,” Astronomical Journal 113, 474-82 (1997) [erratum].

Ramaprakash, A.N., et al, “The Energetic Afterglow of the γ-ray Burst of 14 December 1997,” Nature 393, 43-46 (1998).

Soifer, B.T., G. Neugebauer, M. Franx, K. Matthews, & G.D. Illingworth, “Near-Infrared Observations of a Redshift 4.92 Galaxy: Evidence for Significant Dust Absorption,” Ap.J. 501, L171-L175 (1998).

Soifer, B.T., G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E.E. Becklin, M. Ressler, M.W. Werner, A.J. Weinberger, & E. Egami, “High Spatial Resolution Imaging of Arp 220 from 3 to 25 Microns,” Ap.J. 513, 207-14 (1999).

Bloom, J.S., et al, “The Host Galaxy of GRB 990123,” Ap.J. 518, L1-L4 (1999).

Soifer, B.T., K. Matthews, G. Neugebauer, L. Armus, J.G. Cohen, S.E. Persson, & I. Smail, “Near-Infrared Observations of the Extremely Red Object Cl 0939+4713B: An Old Galaxy at z ∼ 1.58?”Astronomical Journal 118, 2065-70 (1999).

Soifer, B.T., et al, “High Resolution Mid-Infrared Imaging of Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies,” Astronomical Journal 119, 509-23 (2000).

Hogg, David W., et al, “Caltech Faint Galaxy Redshift Survey. IX. Source Detection and Photometry in the Hubble Deep Field Region,” Ap.J. Supp. 127, 1-9 (2000).

Egami, E., et al, “APM 08279+5255: Keck Near- and Mid-Infrared High-Resolution Imaging,” Ap.J. 535, 561-74 (2000).

Bock, J.J., et al, “High Spatial Resolution Imaging of NGC 1068 in the Mid-Infrared,” Astronomical Journal 120, 2904-19 (2000).

Soifer, B.T., et al, “High-Resolution Mid-Infrared Imaging of Infrared-Luminous Starburst Galaxies,” Astronomical Journal 122, 1213-37 (2000).

Dale, Daniel A., George Helou, Gerry Neugebauer, B.T. Soifer, David T. Frayer, & James J. Condon, “Multiwavelength Observations of the Low-Metallicity Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy SBS 0335-052,” Astronomical Journal 122, 1736-46 (2001).

Soifer, B.T., G. Neugebauer, K. Matthews, E. Egami, & A.J. Weinberger, “ Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies with Subarcsecond Resolution,” Astronomical Journal 124, 2980-89 (2002).

Ghez, A.M, et al, “The First Measurement of Spectral Lines in a Short-Period Star Bound to the Galaxy's Central Black Hole: A Paradox of Youth,“ Ap.J. 586, L127-L131 (2003).

Papovich, C., et al, “The 24 Micron Source Counts in Deep Spitzer Space Telescope Surveys,” Ap.J. Supp. 154, 70-74 (2004).

Dole, H., et al, “Far-infrared Source Counts at 70 and 160 Microns in Spitzer Deep Surveys,” Ap.J. Supp. 154, 87-92 (2004).

Dole, H., et al, “Confusion of Extragalactic Sources in the Mid- and Far-Infrared: Spitzer and Beyond,” Ap.J. Supp. 154, 93-96 (2004).

Neugebauer, G., K. Matthews, P.D. Nicholson, B.T. Soifer, I. Gatley, & S.V.W. Beckwith, “ Thermal Response of Iapetus to an Eclipse by Saturn's Rings,” Icarus 177, 63-68 (2005).

Egami, E., et al, “Spitzer Observations of the Brightest Galaxies in X-Ray-Luminous Clusters,” Ap.J. 647, 922-33 (2006).

Engelbracht, C.W., et al, “Absolute Calibration and Characterization of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. I. The Stellar Calibrator Sample and the 24μm Calibration, ” PASP 119, 994-1018 (2007).

Gordon, Karl D., et al, “Absolute Calibration and Characterization of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. II. 70 μm Imaging,” PASP 119, 1019-37 (2007).

Stansberry, J.A., et al, “Absolute Calibration and Characterization of the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer. III. An Asteroid-based Calibration of MIPS at 160 μm,” PASP 119, 1038-51 (2007).

Search ADS for works by Neugebauer.

Other Works: Popularizations, History, etc.

Neugebauer, G. & Eric E. Becklin, “The Brightest Infrared Sources,” Sci. Amer. 228, 28-40 (1973).

Habing, H.J. & G. Neugebauer, “The Infrared Sky,” Sci. Amer. 251 (5), 48-57 (1984).