Charlotte Emma Moore Sitterly

Charlotte Emma Moore Sitterly

1990

Date of Birth
September 24, 1898
Date of Death
March 3, 1990

Upon completing her B.A. in mathematics at Swarthmore College in 1920 Charlotte Moore took a job as assistant to Henry Norris Russell at Princeton University. There she audited courses and became coauthor of papers on binary stars and an influential book on the masses of stars. In the late 1920s she worked at the Mt. Wilson Observatory with Charles E. St. John and Harold D. Babcock on the solar spectrum. She earned her Ph.D. at the University of California at Berkeley using Mt. Wilson plates to analyze atomic lines in the sunspot spectrum. From 1945 until the end of her life she worked on spectra at the National Bureau of Standards (now the National Institute of Standards and Technology) and the Naval Research Laboratory. She compiled, organized, and analyzed laboratory data and published definitive books on the solar spectrum and spectral line multiplets. These books became the essential resource for spectroscopists. In her later years she extended the tables into the ultraviolet with data from rocket-borne instruments and laboratory work.

Presentation of Bruce medal

Morrison, Nancy & Andrew Fraknoi, Mercury 19, 179 (1990).

Other awards

American Astronomical Society, Annie Jump Cannon Award, 1937.
Optical Society of America, William F. Meggers Award, 1972.

Biographical materials

Encyclopedia of World Biography
Kessler, Karl G., “Dr. Charlotte Moore Sitterly and the National Bureau of Standards,” J. Opt. Soc. America B 5, 2043-44 (1988).
Rubin, Vera C., “Charlotte Moore Sitterly,” Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage 13, 145-48 (2010).
Shore, Steven N., Biographical Encyclopedia of Astronomers (Springer, NY, 2007), pp. 802-04.
Slight-Gibney, Nancy in Shearer, Benjamin F. & Barbara S., eds. Notable Women in the Physical Sciences: a Biographical Dictionary (Greenwood Press, Westport, CT & London, 1997), pp. 375-80.
Wilson, Philip K., in McMurray, Emily J., ed., Notable Twentieth-century Scientists (Gale Research, NY, 1995), pp. 1410-11.

Obituaries

Garton, W.P.S. & W.C. Martin, QJRAS 32, 209-10 (1991).
Martin, W.C., Physics Today 44, 4, 128-30 (1991).
Roman, Nancy G., Bull. Am. Astron. Soc. 23, 1492-94 (1991).
Standards Alumni Assoc. Newsletter 90, (2), 6-8 (1990).
Sullivan, Walter, New York Times, 8 Mar 1990, p. D25.
Washington Post, 9 Mar 1990, p. C6.

Portraits

AIP Center for History of Physics (4 photos)

Named after her

Minor planet #2110 Moore-Sitterly

Bibliography

Papers, etc.

Papers are at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). There are 1978 and 1981 oral history interviews at the Niels Bohr Library & Archives.

Other References: Historical

Edlén, Bengt & William C. Martin,“Atomic Spectroscopy in the Twentieth Century, a Tribute to Charlotte Moore Sitterly on the Occasion of her Ninetieth Birthday: Feature, Introduction,” Journal of the Optical Society of America B 5, 2040-42 (1988).

Hearnshaw, J. B., The Analysis of Starlight (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1986).

National Institute of Standards and Technology, History of Atomic Spectroscopy at NIST
http://www.nist.gov/pml/div684/grp01/history.cfm

National Institute of Standards and Technology, NIST at 100: Foundations for Progress
http://www.nist.gov/centennial/index.cfm

Sitterly, Charlotte Moore, “Collaboration with Henry Norris Russell over the Years,” in Philip, A.G. Davis & David H. DeVorkin, eds., In Memory of Henry Norris Russell (Dudley Observatory, Albany, NY, 1977), pp. 27-41.

Tousey, R.,“The Solar Spectrum from Fraunhofer to Skylab: An Appreciation of the Contributions of Charlotte Moore Sitterly,” Journal of the Optical Society of America B 5, 2230 (1988).

Wiese, Wolfgang L., “Atomic Energy Levels and Other Spectroscopic Data,” in Lide, D.R., ed., A Century of Excellence in Measurements, Standards, and Technology; A Chronicle of Selected Publications of NBS/NIST, 1901-2000, (NIST Special Publication 958, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Washington, DC, 2001), pp. 73-76 .

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Other References: Scientific

Moore, Charlotte E. & Henry Norris Russell, “On the Winged Lines in the Solar Spectrum,” Ap.J. 63, 1-12 (1926).

King, Arthur S. & Charlotte E. Moore, “Laboratory Evidence on the Presence of Ionized Cerium in the Sun,” PASP 39, 47-48 (1927).

Russell, Henry Norris, Walter S. Adams, & Charlotte E. Moore, “A Calibration of Rowland’s Scale of Intensities for Solar Lines,” Ap.J. 68, 1-8 (1928).

St. John, Charles E. & Charlotte E. Moore, “On the Presence of the Rare-Earth Elements in the Sun,” Ap.J. 68, 93-107 (1928).

Moore, Charlotte E. & Henry Norris Russell, “The Presence of Predicted Iron Lines in the Solar Spectrum and the Terms in the Arc Spectrum of Iron,” Ap.J. 68, 151-64 (1928).

Russell, Henry Norris & Charlotte E. Moore, “Dynamical Parallaxes of 1777 Double Stars,” Astronomical Journal 39, 165-207 (1929).

Moore, Charlotte E. & Phyllis Hayford, “Elements and Ephemeris of Minor Planet 1929 PA,“ Lick Obs. Bull. 15, 22-23 (1930).

Moore, Charlotte Emma & Harlow Shapley, “Photographic Determinations of the Position of the Moon,” Ann. Harvard Col. Obs. 85, 9, 169-79 (1930).

Moore, Charlotte E., “The Presence of Ionized Lutecium in the Sun,” PASP 42, 346 (1930).

Moore, Charlotte E., “Some Results from a Study of the Atomic Lines in the Sun-Spot Spectrum,” Ap.J. 75, 222-73 (1932) and 75, 298-336 (1932).

Aitken, Robert G. & Charlotte E. Moore, “Measures and Dynamical Parallaxes of 323 A Double Stars,” Lick Obs. Bull. 451, 96-110 (1932).

Russell, Henry Norris & Charlotte Emma Moore, The arc spectrum of iron (Fe I) : Part I. Analysis of the spectrum, based on the work of many investigators and including unpublished studies by Miguel A. Catalán (American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1944).

Moore, Charlotte Emma, A Multiplet Table of Astrophysical Interest (The Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ, 1933, 1945).

Moore, Charlotte Emma, Spectrum Lines of Astrophysical Interest (The Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ, 1933-34).

Babcock, Harold D., Charlotte E. Moore, & Wendell P. Hoge, “A Scale of Wave-Lengths in the Infra-Red Solar Spectrum,” Ap.J. 83, 103-20 (1936).

Moore, Charlotte E., “New Identifications of Solar Lines,” Ap.J. 85, 79-87 (1937).

Russell, Henry Norris & Charlotte E. Moore, “A Comparison of Spectroscopic and Trigonometric Parallaxes,” Ap.J. 87, 389-423 (1938).

Moore, Charlotte E., “The Arc Spectrum of Vanadium in the Violet,” Phys. Rev. 55, 710-13 (1939).

Russell, Henry Norris & Charlotte E. Moore, “The Systematic and Accidental Errors of Spectroscopic Parallaxes,” Ap.J. 92, 354-91 (1940).

Russell, Henry Norris & Charlotte E. Moore, The Masses of the Stars with a General Gatalogue of Dynamical Parallaxes (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1940).

Russell, Henry Norris & Charlotte E. Moore, “The Systematic and Accidental Errors of Spectroscopic Parallaxes,” Ap.J. 92, 354-91 (1940).

Babcock, Harold Delos & Charlotte E. Moore, The Solar Spectrum, λ6600 to λ13495 (US Govt. Printing Office, Washington, 1947).

Babcock, Harold D., Charlotte E. Moore, & Mary F. Coffeen, “The Ultraviolet Solar Spectrum λ2935-3060,” Ap.J. 107, 287-302A (1948).

Moore, Charlotte E., An Ultraviolet Multiplet Table (National Bureau of Standards Circular, US Govt Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1952, 1961, 1962).

Moore, Charlotte E., “Infrared Multiplets and the Solar Spectrum, ” Journal of the Optical Society of America 43, 1014-19 (1953).

Wilson, N.L., R. Tousey, J.D. Purcell, F.S. Johnson, & C.E. Moore, “A Revised Analysis of the Solar Spectrum from 2990 to 2635 Å,” Ap.J. 119, 590-612 (1954).

Moore, Charlotte E., “Atomic spectra—Their Rôle in Astrophysics,” Vistas in Astronomy 2, 1209-22 (1956).

Moore, Charlotte E., A Multiplet Table of Astrophysical Interest. (National Bureau of Standards Technical Note, US Dept. of Commerce, Washington, DC, 1959).

Moore, Charlotte E., Identification List of Lines in Stellar Spectra (National Bureau of Standards Technical Note 36, 1,1959).

Malitson, H.H., J.D. Purcell, R. Tousey, & C.E. Moore, “The Solar Spectrum from 2635 to 2085 A,” Ap.J. 132, 746 -66 (1960).

Moore, Charlotte E., “The Atomic Spectra of the Rare Earths: Their Presence in the Sun,” Applied Optics 2, 665-74 (1963).

Moore, Charlotte E., Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra - A: Atomic Energy Levels - 2nd ed.; B: Multiplet tables - Si II, Si III, Si IV. Data Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra (National Bureau of Standards, National Standard Reference Series, Washington, DC, 1965).

Moore, Charlotte E., M.G.J. Minnaert, & J. Houtgast, The Solar Spectrum 2935 A to 8770 A (National Bureau of Standards Monograph, US Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1966).

Moore, Charlotte E., Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra - A: Atomic Energy Levels - 2nd ed.; B: Multiplet tables - Si I. Data Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra (National Bureau of Standards, National Standard Reference Series, Washington, DC, 1967).

Moore, Charlotte E., Bibliography on the Analyses of Optical Atomic Spectra - Sect.1: 1[H] - 23[V] (National Bureau of Standards Special Publication, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1968).

Moore, Charlotte E., Partial Grotriam Diagrams of Astrophysical Interest (National Bureau of Standards, National Standard Reference Series, Washington, DC, 1968).

Moore, Charlotte E., Bibliography on the Analyses of Optical Atomic Spectra. Sect. 1: 1H - 23V; Sect. 2: 24[W] - 41[Nb]; Sect.3: 42[Mo] - 57[La], 72[Hf] - 89[Ac]; Sect.4: 57[La] - 71[Lu], 89[Ac] - 99[Es] (National Bureau of Standards Special Publication, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1969).

Moore, Charlotte E., Ionization Potentials and Ionization Limits Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra (National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, 1970).

Moore, Charlotte E., Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra (National Bureau of Standards, National Standard Reference Series, Washington, DC, 1970).

Moore, Charlotte E., Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra - A: Atomic Atomic Energy Levels - 2nd ed. - B: Multiplet tables; N IV, N V, N VI, N VII. Data Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra (National Bureau of Standards, National Standard Reference Series, Washington, DC, 1971).

Moore, C.E., R. Tousey, G.D. Sandlin, C.M. Brown, S.G. Tilford, & M.L. Ginter, “Ultraviolet Solar Identifications Based on Extended Absorption Series Observed in the Laboratory Spectrum of Si I,” Astrophys. & Space Sci. 38, 359-64 (1975).

Meggers, William Frederick and Charlotte E. Moore, The First Spectrum of Hafnium (Hf I) (U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, 1976.

Feldman, U., C.M. Brown, G.A. Doschek, C.E. Moore, & F.D. Rosenberg, “XUV Spectrum of C I Observed from Skylab During a Solar Flare,” Journal of the Optical Society of America 66, 853-59 (1976).

Moore, C.E., C.M. Brown, G.D. Sandlin, S.G. Tilford, & R. Tousey, “The Presence of Si I Series in the Ultraviolet Solar Spectrum — 3000 to 1200 Å,” Ap.J. Supp. 33, 393-414 (1977).

Moore, Charlotte E., Selected Tables of Atomic Spectra. A: Atomic Energy Levels, 2nd ed. B: Multiplet Table; O V. Data Derived from the Analyses of Optical Spectra (National Standard Reference Series - National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC, 1980).

Moore, C.E.; R. Tousey, & C.M. Brown, The Solar Spectrum 3069-2095 Angstroms from the Echelle Spectrograph Flown in 1961 and 1964. An Extension of Rowlands Preliminary Table of Solar Spectrum Wavelengths (Interim Report, Naval Research Lab, Washington, DC, 1982) [abstract].

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Other Works: Popularizations, Fiction, etc.

Moore, Charlotte E., “Elements in the Sun,” Sky & Telescope 2, 3 (1943).