Allan Rex Sandage

Allan Rex Sandage


Date of Birth
June 18, 1926
Date of Death
November 13, 2010

The son of the nation’s first professor of advertising, Allan Sandage studied two years at Miami University of Ohio, served two years in the U.S. Navy during World War II, and then finished his bachelor's degree in physics at the University of Illinois in 1948. He then became one of the first graduate students in astronomy at the California Institute of Technology, where he earned his doctorate under Walter Baade in 1953. From 1952 until his death (emeritus after 1997) he was on the staff of the Mt. Wilson and Palomar Observatories (now the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science), where he began as a graduate student assistant to Edwin P. Hubble. His research was in stellar astronomy and observational cosmology. With Martin Schwarzschild he determined ages and evolution of globular clusters in order to obtain the ages of the oldest objects known. He calibrated all of the “standard candles” to determine distances of remote galaxies and several times presented (often with Gustav Tammann) revised estimates of the value of the Hubble constant. After nearly half a century of observing with the Hale telescope on Palomar Mountain, he used the Hubble Space Telescope to determine distances to galaxies using Cepheid variable stars. In the controversy over the value of the Hubble constant, Sandage and Tammann were strong proponents of a relatively small value of the constant, implying a relatively large, old universe. Sandage found the first optical counterpart to a radio source that would later be identified as a quasar, and he discovered many more, including the radio-quiet ones. He published photographic atlases of galaxies and many historical reviews, including a centennial history of the Mt. Wilson Observatory.

Presentation of Bruce medal

Mercury 4, 6, 2 (1975).

Other awards

American Astronomical Society, Henry Norris Russell Lectureship, 1972.
Association pour le Développement International de l’Observatoire de Nice, ADION medal, 1988
Franklin Institute, Elliot Cresson medal, 1973.
Peter Gruber Foundation, Cosmology Prize, 2000.
National Medal of Science, 1970.
National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Jansky Lectureship, 1991.
Pontifical Academy of Sciences, Gold Medal.
Royal Astronomical Society, Eddington Medal, presented by W.H. McCrea, QJRAS 4, 180-82 (1963); Gold medal, 1967, presented by T.G. Cowling, QJRAS 8, 126-28 (1967).
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Crafoord Prize, 1991.

Biographical materials

Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M., “Allan Sandage: L’Architecte de l’Expansion,” Ciel et Espace 338, 44-48 (1998). [in French]
Ferris, Timothy, “Minds and Matter,” New Yorker 71, 12, 46 (1995) [abstract].
Golden, Frederic, “Astronomy’s Feisty Old Man,” Astronomy 25, 12, 55 (1997).
Lynden-Bell, Donald & François Schweizer, Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society [arXiv:1111.5646 (2011)].
Overbye, Dennis, “He Was Mr. Universe, but He Was Really in Love With the Stars,” New York Times, 22 November 2010.
Panek, Richard, “The Loneliness of the Long Distance Cosmologist,” New York Times Magazine, 25 July 1999.
Sandage, Allan, interview with Alan Lightman, in Lightman, Alan & Roberta Brawer, Origins: The Lives and Worlds of Modern Cosmologists (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1990), pp. 67-84.
Strauss, Michael A., Gruber Cosmology Prize biographical statement
Tammann, G.A. & B. Reindl, “Allan Sandage and the Cosmic Expansion,” Astrophysics and Space Science 341, 3-14 (2012) [Preprint available free at arXiv1112.0170 (2011)].


Beatty, Kelly, Sky and Telescope, 15 November 2010 (online).
Carnegie Institution for Science, 17 November 2010 (online).
Childs, Martin, The Independent, 22 November 2010 (online).
Cooper, Keith, Astronomy Now, 16 November 2010 (online)
DeVorkin, David H., Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 43, id 39 (2011).
Kennicutt, R., Observatory 131, 109-11 (2011).
Lynden-Bell, Donald, Astronomy & Geophysics 52, 1.43 (2011).
Lynden-Bell, Donald, The Guardian, 9 December 2010 (online).
Maugh II, Thomas H., Los Angeles Times, 17 November 2010 (online).
Overbye, Dennis, New York Times, 17 November 2010 (online).
Tammann, Gustav A., Nature 468, 898 (2010).
van den Bergh, Sidney, JRASC 105, 38 (2011).
Vaughan, Arthur H., PASP 123, 125-26 (2011).


AIP Center for History of Physics (several)
Caltech Archives (4 photos)
Photo at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, age 75, courtesy David Devorkin.

Named after him

Hubble-Sandage variable stars (with Edwin Hubble)
Minor planet #9963 Sandage


Papers, etc.

There are 1974, 1977, 1978, and 1989 oral history interviews of Sandage at the Niels Bohr Library & Archives.

Other References: Historical

Arny, Thomas, “The Star Makers: A History of the Theories of Stellar Structure and Evolution,” Vistas in Astronomy 33, 211-33 (1990).

Croswell, Ken, “The Constant Hubble War,” New Scientist 137, 22 (1993).

Croswell, Ken, The Alchemy of the Heavens (Anchor Books, NY, 1995).

Croswell, Ken, The Universe at Midnight: Observations Illuminating the Cosmos (Free Press, NY, 2001).

Heller, M., P. Flin, Z. Golda, K. Maślanka, M. Ostrowski, K. Rudnicki, K., & T. Sierotowicz, “Observational Cosmology from Gauss to Sandage,” Acta Cosmologica 16, 87-106 (1989).

Overbye, Dennis, Lonely Hearts of the Cosmos (HarperCollins, NY, 1991).

Sandage, A. “The Search for the Curvature of Space,” Physica Scripta T43, 7-21 (1992).

Sandage, Allan, “Observational Cosmology 1920-1985: An Introduction to the Conference” in Adelaide Hewitt, Geoffrey Burbidge, and Li Zhi Fang, eds., Observational Cosmology; Proceedings of the 124th Symposium, of the IAU, held in Beijing, China, Aug. 25-30, 1986, (D. Reidel., Dordrecht, 1987), pp. 1-27.

Sandage, Allan, “The First 50 Years At Palomar: 1949–1999. The Early Years of Stellar Evolution, Cosmology, and High-Energy Astrophysics,” Ann. Rev. Astron. & Astrophys. 37, 445-86 (1999).

Sandage, Allan, “Episodes in the Discovery of Variations in the Chemical Composition of Stars and Galaxies,” PASP 112, 293 (2000) [Millennium Essay].

Sandage, Allan, “The Classification Of Galaxies: Early History and Ongoing Developments,” Ann. Rev. Astron. & Astrophys. 43, 581-624 (2005).

Tamann, G.A., “The Hubble Constant: A Discourse,” PASP 108, 1083-90 (1996).

Trimble, Virginia, “H0: The Incredible Shrinking Constant 1925-1975,” PASP 108, 1073-1082 (1996).

Trimble, Virginia, “Extragalactic Distance Scales: H0 from Hubble (Edwin) to Hubble (Hubble Telescope),” Space Science Reviews 79, 793-834 (1997).

Search ADS for works about Sandage

Other References: Scientific

Sandage, Allan R., “Solar Excitation Temperature of V I,” Ap.J. 111, 575-79 (1950).

Sandage, Allan R. & Martin Schwarzschild, “Inhomogeneous Stellar Models II: Models with Exhausted Cores in Gravitational Contraction,” Ap.J. 116, 463-76, (1952). [excerpted with commentary in Kenneth R. Lang, & Owen Gingerich, eds., A Source Book in Astronomy & Astrophysics, 1900-1975 (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1979), pp. 353-63.

Sandage, Allan R., “The Color-Magnitude Diagram for the Globular Cluster M3,” Astronomical Journal 58, 61-75 (1953).

Hubble, Edwin & Allan Sandage, “The Brightest Variable Stars in Extragalactic Nebulae. I. M31 and M33,” Ap.J. 118, 353-61 (1953).

Sandage, Allan R., “The First Four Years of Extragalactic Research with the Hale 200-inch Telescope,” Astronomical Journal 59, 180 (1954).

Johnson, Harold L. & Allan R. Sandage, “The Galactic Cluster M67 and its Significance for Stellar Evolution,” Ap.J. 121, 616-27 (1955).

Sandage, Allan R., “The Systematics of Color-Magnitude Diagrams and Stellar Evolution,” PASP 68, 498 (1956).

Sandage, Allan, “On the Mass of the RR Lyrae Stars,” Ap.J. 123, 278–84 (1956).

Humason, M.L., N.U. Mayall, & A.R. Sandage, “Redshifts and Magnitudes of Extragalactic Nebulae,” Astronomical Journal 61, 97-162 (1956). [reprinted in the centennial edition Ap.J. 525C, 640 (1999) with a modern commentary by Paul W. Hodge; also excerpted with commentary in A Source Book in Astronomy & Astrophysics, 1900-1975 edited by Kenneth R. Lang, & Owen Gingerich (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1979), pp. 753-62.]

Johnson, Harold L. & Allan R. Sandage, “Three-Color Photometry in the Globular Cluster M3,” Ap.J. 124, 379-89 (1955).

Hoyle, Fred & Allan Sandage, “The Second-Order Term in the Redshift-Magnitude Relation,” PASP 68, 301-07 (1956).

Sandage, Allan “Observational Approach to Evolution. I. Luminosity Functions,” Ap.J. 125, 422-34 (1957).

Sandage, Allan “Observational Approach to Evolution. II. A Computed Luminosity Function for K0-K2 Stars from Mv = +5 to Mv = –4.5,” Ap.J. 125, 435-44 (1957).

Sandage, Allan “Observational Approach to Evolution. III. Semiempirical Evolution Tracks for M67 and M3,” Ap.J. 126, 326-40 (1957).

Sandage, Allan “Current Problems in the Extragalactic Distance Scale,” Ap.J. 127, 513-26 (1958).

Baum, W.A., W.A. Hiltner, H.L. Johnson, & A.R. Sandage, “The Main Sequence of the Globular Cluster M13,” Ap.J. 130, 749-63 (1959).

Sandage, Allan & Olin J. Eggen, “On the Existence of Subdwarfs in the (MBol, log Te)-Diagram,” MNRAS 119, 278-96 (1959).

Sandage, Allan & George Wallerstein, “Color-Magnitude Diagram for Disk Clobular Cluster NGC 6356 Compared with Halo Clusters,” Ap.J. 131, 598-609 (1960).

Matthews, T.A., J.G. Bolton, J.L. Greenstein, G. Münch, & A.R. Sandage, “First True Radio Star,” 107th Meeting Amer. Astr. Soc., Dec. 31, 1960 (unpublished), but reported in Sky & Telescope 21, 148 (1961) [excerpted with commentary in A Source Book in Astronomy & Astrophysics, 1900-1975 edited by Kenneth R. Lang, & Owen Gingerich (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA, 1979), pp. 801-02.]

Sandage, Allan, The Hubble Atlas of Galaxies (Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1961).

Sandage, Allan “The Ability of the 200-inch Telescope to Discriminate Between Selected World Models,” Ap.J. 133, 355-92 (1961).

Sandage, Allan “The Light Travel Time and the Evolutionary Correction to Magnitudes of Distant Galaxies,” Ap.J. 134, 916-26 (1961).

Sandage, Allan, “The Ages of M67, NGC 188, M3, M5, and M13 According to Hoyle’s 1959 Models,” Ap.J. 135, 349-65 (1962).

Sandage, Allan, “The Change of Redshift and Apparent Luminosity of Galaxies due to the Deceleration of Selected Expanding Universes,” Ap.J. 136, 319-33 (1962).

Eggen, O. J., D. Lynden-Bell, & A.R. Sandage, “Evidence from the Motions of old Stars that the Galaxy Collapsed,” Ap.J. 136, 748-66 (1962). [reprinted in the centennial edition Ap.J. 525C, 964 (1999) with a modern commentary by Gregory D. Bothun]

Burbidge, G.R., E.M. Burbidge, & A.R. Sandage, “Evidence for the Occurrence of Violent Events in the Nuclei of Galaxies,” Revs. Mod. Phys. 35, 947-72 (1963).

Lynds, C.R. & A.R. Sandage, “Evidence for an Explosion in the Center of the Galaxy M82,”Ap.J. 137, 1005-21 (1963).

Matthews, Thomas A. & Allan R. Sandage, “Optical Identification of 3C 48, 3C 196, and 3C 286 with Stellar Objects,” Ap.J. 138, 30-56 (1963).

Eggen, O.J. & A.R. Sandage, “New Photoelectric Observations of Stars in the Old Galactic Cluster M67,” Ap.J. 140, 130-43 (1965).

Sandage, Allan, “The Existence of a Major New Constituent of the Universe: the Quasistellar Galaxies, ” Ap.J. 141, 1560-78 (1965).

Sandage, Allan & John D. Wyndham, “On the Optical Identification of Eleven New Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources, ” Ap.J. 141, 328-31 (1965).

Sandage, Allan “The Existence of a Major New Constituent of the Universe: the Quasistellar Galaxies,” Ap.J. 141, 1560-78 (1965).

Sandage, Allan, Philippe Véron, & John D. Wyndham, “Optical Identification of New Quasi-Stellar Radio Sources, ” Ap.J. 142, 1307-11 (1965).

Sandage, Allan & Lewis L. Smith, “The Color-magnitude Diagram of the Metal-rich Globular Cluster NGC 6712, ” Ap.J. 144, 886-93 (1966).

Kinman, T.D., J.G. Bolton, R.W. Clarke, & Allan Sandage, “Radio and Optical Data on Sixteen Quasi-Stellar Objects,” Ap.J. 147, 848-50 (1967).

Sandage, Allan & Robert Wildey“The Anomalous Color-Magnitude Diagram of the Remote Globular Cluster NGC 7006,” Ap.J. 150, 469-82 (1967).

Sandage, Allan & G.A. Tammann, “A Composite Period-Luminosity Relation for Cepheids at Mean and Maximum Light, ” Ap.J. 151, 531-45 (1968).

Tammann, G.A., & Allan Sandage, “The Stellar Content and Distance of the Galaxy NGC 2403 in the M81 Group,” Ap.J. 151, 825-60 (1968).

Sandage, Allan, Basil Katem, & Jerome Kristian, “An Indication of Gaps in the Giant Branch of the Globular Cluster M15,” Ap.J. 153, L129-L133 (1968).

Sandage, Allan, Kenneth C. Freeman, & N.R. Stokes, “The Intrinsic Flattening of E, S0, and Spiral Galaxies as Related to Galaxy Formation and Evolution,” Ap.J. 160, 831-44 (1970).

Sandage, Allan, “Main-sequence Photometry, Color-magnitude Diagrams, and Ages for the Globular Clusters M3, M13, M15, and M92,” Ap.J. 162, 841-70 (1970).

Sandage, Allan, “Classical Cepheids: Cornerstone to Extragalactic Distances,” QJRAS 13, 202-21 (1972).

Sandage, Allan, “Absolute Magnitudes of E and S0 Galaxies in the Virgo and Coma Clusters as a Function of UB Color,” Ap.J. 176, 21-30 (1972).

Sandage, Allan, “Distances to Galaxies: the Hubble Constant, the Friedmann Time, and the Edge of the World,” QJRAS 13, 282-96 (1972).

Sandage, Allan, “The Redshift-Distance Relation II. The Hubble Diagram and Its Scatter for First-ranked Cluster Galaxies: A Formal Value for q0,” Ap.J. 178, 1-24 (1972).

Sandage, Allan, “The Redshift-Distance Relation III. Photometry and the Hubble Diagram for Radio Sources and the Possible Turn-On Time for QSOs,” Ap.J. 178, 25-44 (1972).

Sandage, Allan, “The Redshift-Distance Relation IV. The Composite Nature of N Galaxies, their Hubble Diagram, and the Validity of Measured Redshifts as Distance Indicators,” Ap.J. 180, 687-97 (1973).

Sandage, Allan, “The Redshift-Distance Relation V. Galaxy Colors as Functions of Galactic Latitude and Redshift: Observed Colors Compared with Predicted Distributions for Various World Models,” Ap.J. 183, 711-30 (1973).

Sandage, Allan & Eduardo Hardy, “The Redshift-Distance Relation. VII. Absolute Magnitudes of the First Three Ranked Cluster Galaxies as Functions of Cluster Richness and Bautz-Morgan Cluster Type: the Effect on q0,” Ap.J. 183, 743-57 (1973).

Sandage, Allan & G.A. Tammann, “Steps toward the Hubble Constant. IV. Distances to 39 Galaxies in the General Field Leading to a Calibration of the Galaxy Luminosity Classes and a First Hint of the Value of H0,” Ap.J. 194, 559-68 (1974).

Sandage, Allan, “Classification and Stellar Content of Galaxies Obtained from Direct Photography,” in Galaxies and the Universe edited by Allan Sandage, Mary Sandage, & Jerome Kristian (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1975).


Sandage, Allan, Mary Sandage, & Jerome Kristian, eds., Galaxies and the Universe (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1975).

Sandage, Allan, “Classification and Stellar Content of Galaxies Obtained from Direct Photography,” in Sandage, Allan, Mary Sandage, & Jerome Kristian, eds., Galaxies and the Universe (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1975), pp. 1-55.

Sandage, Allan & G.A. Tammann, “Steps toward the Hubble constant. V. The Hubble Constant from Nearby Galaxies and the Regularity of the Local Velocity Field,” Ap.J. 196, 313-28 (1975).

Sandage, Allan, “The Redshift-Distance Relation VIII: Magnitudes and Redshifts of Southern Galaxies in Groups: a Further Mapping of the Local Velocity Field and an Estimate of the Deceleration Parameter,” Ap.J. 202, 563-82 (1975).

Sandage, Allan, Jerome Kristian, & James A. Westphal, “The Extension of the Hubble Diagram. I. New Redshifts and BVR Photometry of Remote Cluster Galaxies, and an Improved Richness Correction,” Ap.J. 205, 688-95 (1976).

Visvanathan, Natarajan & Allan Sandage, “The Color-absolute Magnitude Relation for E and S0 galaxies. I. Calibration and Tests for Universality Using Virgo and Eight Other Nearby Clusters,” Ap.J. 216, 214-26 (1977).

Yahil, A., G.A. Tammann, & Allan Sandage, “The Local Group: The Solar Motion Relative to its Centroid,” Ap.J. 217, 903-15 (1977).

Sandage, Allan, “Optical redshifts for 719 bright galaxies,” Astronomical Journal 83, 904-37 (1978).

Kristian, Jerome, Allan Sandage, & James A. Westphal, “The Extension of the Hubble Diagram. II. New Redshifts and Photometry of Very Distant Galaxy Clusters: First Indication of a Deviation of the Hubble Diagram from a Straight Line,” Ap.J. 221, 383-94 (1978).

Sandage, Allan & Natarajan Visvanathan, “The Color-absolute Magnitude Relation for E and S0 galaxies. II. New Colors, Magnitudes, and Types for 405 Galaxies,” Ap.J. 223, 707-29 (1978).

Sandage, Allan, G.A. Tammann, & Amos Yahil, “The Velocity Field of Bright Nearby Galaxies. I. The Variation of Mean Absolute Magnitude with Redshift for Galaxies in a Magnitude-limited Sample,” Ap.J. 232, 352-64 (1979).

Humphreys, Roberta M. & Allan Sandage, “On the Stellar Content and Structure of the Spiral Galaxy M33,” Ap.J. Supp. 44, 319-81 (1980).

Sandage, Allan & G.A. Tammann, A Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog of Bright Galaxies (Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, 1981) [pdf].

Sandage, Allan, Basil Katem & Mary Sandage, “The Oosterhoff Period Groups and the Age of Globular Clusters. I. Photometry of Cluster Variables in M15,” Ap.J. Supp. 46, 41-74 (1981).

Sandage, Allan, “The Oosterhoff Period Groups and the Age of Globular Clusters. III. The Age of the Globular Cluster System,” Ap.J. 252, 553-81 (1982).

Binggeli, Bruno, Allan Sandage, & Massimo Tarenghi, “Studies of the Virgo Cluster. I. Photometry of 109 Galaxies Near the Cluster Center to Serve as Standards,” Astronomical Journal 89, 64-82 (1984).

Binggeli, Bruno, Allan Sandage, & G.A. Tammann, “Studies of the Virgo Cluster. II. A Catalog of 2096 Galaxies in the Virgo Cluster Area,” Astronomical Journal 90, 1681-1759 (1985).

Sandage, Allan, Bruno Binggeli, & G.A. Tammann, “Studies of the Virgo Cluster. V. Luminosity Functions of Virgo Cluster Galaxies,” Astronomical Journal 90, 1759-71 (1985).

Binggeli, Bruno, G.A. Tammann, & Allan Sandage, “Studies of the Virgo Cluster. VI. Morphological and Kinematical Structure of the Virgo Cluster,” Astronomical Journal 94, 251-77 (1987).

Sandage, Allan, “The Population Concept, Globular Clusters, Subdwarfs, Ages, and the Collapse of the Galaxy,” Ann. Rev. Astron. & Astrophys. 24, 421-558 (1986).

Sandage, Allan & G.A. Tammann, A Revised Shapley-Ames Catalogue (Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1981, 1987).

Sandage, Allan & John Bedke, Atlas of Galaxies: Useful for Measuring the Cosmological Distance Scale (NASA, Washington, D.C., 1988).

Sandage, Allan, “Observational Tests of World Models,” Ann. Rev. Astron. & Astrophys. 26, 561-630 (1988).

Binggeli, Bruno, Allan Sandage, and G.A. Tammann, “The Luminosity Function of Galaxies,” Ann. Rev. Astron. & Astrophys. 26, 509-60 (1988).

Sandage, Allan, “Properties of Galaxies in Groups and Clusters,” in W.R. Oegerle, M.J. Fitchett and L. Danly, eds., Clusters of Galaxies: Proceedings of the Clusters of Galaxies Meeting, Baltimore, 1989 May 15-17 (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1990), pp. 201ff.


Sandage, Allan, “The Vertical Height of the Horizontal Branch: The Range in the Absolute Magnitudes of RR Lyrae Stars in a Given Globular Cluster,” Ap.J. 350, 603-30 (1990).

Sandage, Allan, “On the Formation and Age of the Galaxy,” JRASC 84, 70-88 (1990).

Sandage, A., “Evidence that the Expansion is Real,” Physica Scripta T43, 22-30 (1992).

Sandage, Allan, “The Search for the Curvature of Space,” in Crafoord Symposium, Stockholm, 1991: Extragalactic Astronomy, including Observational Cosmology, edited by A. Elvius (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, 1992), pp. 5-21.

Sandage, Allan, “Temperature, Mass, and Luminosity of RR Lyrae Stars as Functions of Metallicity at the Blue Fundamental Edge. II,” Astronomical Journal 106, 703-18 (1993).

Sandage, Allan, “Bias Properties of Extragalactic Distance Indicators. 1. The Hubble Constant Does Not Increase Outward,” Ap.J. 430, 1-12 (1994).

Sandage, Allan & John Bedke, The Carnegie Atlas of Galaxies (Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1994, 1996: vol. 1, vol. 2).

Sandage, A.R., “Practical Cosmology: Inventing the Past,” in B. Bingelli & R. Buser, eds. The Deep Universe, Saas-Fee Advanced Course 23. Lecture Notes 1993. Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995), pp. 1-232.

Sandage, Allan, “Astronomical Problems for the Next Three Decades,” in Guido Munch, Antonio Mampaso, & Francisco Sanchez, eds., The Universe at Large: Key Issues in Astronomy and Cosmology (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1997), pp. 1-63.

Shara, Michael M., Allan Sandage, & David R. Zurek, “The Early Palomar Program (1950-1955) for the Discovery of Classical Novae in M81: Analysis of the Spatial Distribution, Magnitude Distribution, and Distance Suggestion,” PASP 111, 1367-81 (1999).

Sandage, Allan, “Bias Properties of Extragalactic Distance Indicators. IX. Absolute Luminosity and Line-Width Distributions for Galaxy Types along the Hubble Sequence Based on Distance-limited Samples from the Revised Shapley-Ames Catalog,” PASP 112, 504-28 (2000).

Parodi, B.R., A. Saha, A. Sandage, & G.A. Tamann, “Supernova Type Ia Luminosities, Their Dependence on Second Parameters, and the Value of H0,” Ap.J. 540, 634-51 (2000).

Sandage, Allan, “The Mount Wilson Halo Mapping Project 1975-1985. II. Photometric Properties of the Mount Wilson Catalogue of Photographic Magnitudes in Selected Areas 1-139,” PASP 113, 267-307 (2001).

Sandage, Allan, G.A. Tammann, & A. Saha, “How Good Are SNe Ia as Standard Candles? A Short History,” Supernovae and Gamma-ray Bursts: the Greatest Explosions since the Big Bang. Proceedings of the Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium, held in Baltimore, MD, USA, May 3 - 6, 1999, edited by Mario Livio, Nino Panagia, Kailash Sahu (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2001), pp. 304-333.

Sandage, Allan & A. Saha, “Bias Properties of Extragalactic Distance Indicators. XI. Methods to Correct for Observational Selection Bias for RR Lyrae Absolute Magnitudes from Trigonometric Parallaxes Expected from the Full-Sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer Satellite,” Astronomical Journal 123. 2047-69 (2002).

Tammann, G.A., A. Sandage, & B. Reindl, “New Period-Luminosity and Period-Color Relations of Classical Cepheids: I. Cepheids in the Galaxy,” Astron. & Astrophys. 404, 423-48 (2003).

Sandage, Allan, Lori M. Lubin, & Don A. VandenBerg, “The Age of the Oldest Stars in the Local Galactic Disk from Hipparcos Parallaxes of G and K Subgiants,” PASP 115, 1187-1206 (2003).

Sandage, A., G.A. Tammann, & B. Reindl, “New Period-Luminosity and Period-Color relations of Classical Cepheids: II. Cepheids in LMC,” Astr. & Astrophys. 424, 43-71 (2004).

Sandage, Allan, “The Classification of Galaxies: Early History and Ongoing Developments,” Ann. Rev. Astr. Astrophys. 43, 581-624 (2005).

Sandage, Allan & Gustav A. Tammann, “Absolute Magnitude Calibrations of Population I and II Cepheids and Other Pulsating Variables in the Instability Strip of the Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram,” Ann. Rev. Astr. Astrophys. 44, 93-140 (2006).

Sandage, A., G.A. Tammann, A. Saha, B. Reindl, F.D. Macchetto, & N. Panagia, “The Hubble Constant: A Summary of the Hubble Space Telescope Program for the Luminosity Calibration of Type Ia Supernovae by Means of Cepheids,” Ap.J. 653, 843-60 (2006).

Sandage, Allan, “A Misuse of the Hubble Diagram,” Observatory 126, 52-55 (2006).

Tammann, G.A., A. Sandage, & B. Reindl, “Comparison of Distances from RR Lyrae Stars, the Tip of the Red Giant Branch, and Classical Cepheids,” Ap.J. 679, 52-70 (2008).

Tammann, G.A., A. Sandage, & B. Reindl, “The Expansion Field: the Value of H0,” Astronomy and Astrophysics Review 15, 289-331 (2008) [online data].

Sandage, Allan & G.A. Tammann, “Temperature Differences in the Cepheid Instability Strip Require Differences in the Period-Luminosity Relation in Slope and Zero Point,” Ap.J. 686, 779-84 (2008).

Sandage, A., G.A. Tammann, & B. Reindl, “New Period-luminosity and Period-color Relations of Classical Cepheids. III. Cepheids in SMC,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 493, 471-79 (2009).

Tammann, G.A. & A. Sandage, “The Hubble Constant and HST,” in F.D. Machetto, ed., The Impact of HST on European Astronomy, Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings (Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2010), pp. 289-96.

Sandage, A., B. Reindl, & G.A. Tammann, “The Linearity of the Cosmic Expansion Field from 300 to 30,000 km s-1 and the Bulk Motion of the Local Supercluster with Respect to the Cosmic Microwave Background,” Ap.J 714, 1441-59 (2010).

Sandage, Allan, “The Tolman Surface Brightness Test for the Reality of the Expansion. V. Provenance of the Test and a New Representation of the Data for Three Remote Hubble Space Telescope Galaxy Clusters,” Astronomical Journal 139, 728-42 (2010).

Sandage, Allan, “Amplitude Fine Structure in the Cepheid P-L Relation. I. Amplitude Distribution Across the RR Lyrae Instability Strip Mapped Using the Accessibility Restriction Imposed by the Horizontal Branch,” Ap.J. 722, 79-87 (2010).

Tammann, G.A., B. Reindl, & A. Sandage, “New Period-luminosity and Period-color Relations of Classical Cepheids. IV. The Low-metallicity Galaxies IC 1613, WLM, Pegasus, Sextans A and B, and Leo A in Comparison to SMC,” Astronomy & Astrophysics 531, id. A134 (2011).

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Other Works: Popularizations, History, etc.

Sandage, Allan, “The Evolution of the Stars,” Leaflets of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 7, 57-6f4 (1955) [Leaflet #308].

Sandage, Allan, “The Birth and Death of a Star,” Amer. J. Physics 25, 525-531 (1957).

Sandage, Allan, “The Time Scale for Creation,” Leaflets of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 10, 209-16 (1967) [Leaflet #477] and 10, 217-24 (1967) [Leaflet #478].

Sandage, Allan, “Observational Cosmology,” Observatory 88, 91-106 (1968) [Halley Lecture, 1967].

Sandage, Allan, “Cosmology: A Search for Two Numbers,” Physics Today 23, 34-41 (1970).

Sandage, Allan, “A Scientist Reflects on Religious Belief,” Leadership University, Origins Project

Sandage, A., “Beginnings of Observational Cosmology in Hubble’s Time: Historical Overview,” in Mario Livio, S. Michael Fall, and Piero Madau, eds., The Hubble Deep Field: Proceedings of the Space Telescope Science Institute Symposium, held in Baltimore, Maryland, May 6-9, 1997 (Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998), pp. 1-32.

Sandage, Allan, Centennial History of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Vol. 1, The Mount Wilson Observatory: Breaking the Code of Cosmic Evolution (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK, 2004).